Archaeologists have found the ruins of a Teutonic castle from the 13th century. in Unislaw
So far the least has been known about this medieval building in the Chelmno region from the Department of Architectural Archaeology of the Teutonic Knightsod objectoin this kind of. The research is being conducted under a grant from the National Program for the Development of the Humanities "Castra Terrae Culmensis – On the frontier of the Christian world". Within three years, the researchers are to conduct interdisciplinary research of the five closesoin the Teutonic. Even before the earthworks began in Unislaw – at the beginning of April 2017., non-invasive research was carried out to closeoin Lipienek, Zamek Bierzgłowski, Unisław and Starogród. In the fifth castle – in Papowo Biskupi no work has been undertaken yet.
– About the building on the gocastle river in Unislaw until recently we knew practically nothing. This is because it has not survived to the present timeoin a lot of information. Now we know that the object was beautifully situated – on a steep escarpment above the Vistula valley, with a good view of the entire area,” Dr. Bogusz Wasik, head of the archaeological work, stressed in an interview with PAP.
The castle complex was multi-part. – It consisted of a high castle and dwoch pre-castle. The high castle itself, or głowny element, was very small. He had approx. 30 metersoin the span of. By this, it should be considered the smallest Teutonic castle in the Chełmno land, he describes. He added that the pre-castle was not masonry.
– We can already state with certainty the presence of a single headoof the pre-castle and one side masonry building. They were erected on the so-called. arcaded foundations, used in places where theohe ground was feared to be unstable. In addition, in front of these buildings there was a small courtyard and an outbuilding, to whichohe remains of which roWe also dug up. In addition, there was a kitchen, as evidenced by pieces of equipment found – historic vascular pottery, but roAlso post-consumption bones, eggshells, fish remains – scales or bones,” added the head of archaeological works.
New research on Teutonic fortresses is being carried out by Dr. hab. Marcin Wiewiora from the Department of Architectural Archaeology at the Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń (UMK), together with a team of. Researchers also found in Unislaw monuments of a military nature, but also of a typically utilitarian nature, e.g. noż.
– Preserved in its entirety, but is covered with rust. We have elements related to the protective ordnance – shallow roof various kinds, whichore may come from armor or flak armor, called in older literature folg-covered armor,” added Krzysztof Cackowski, a doctoral student at the Institute of Archaeology at the University of Toruń, whooryoalso works on the position of the.
Dr. Wasik supplemented that scientists now know when the origins of the fortress can be dated. – This was due to the presence in Unislaw of a komturow, which is mentioned in the literature in the 80s. XIII century. The first building was wooden and earthen. We were able to capture the overhangs associated with it, but we discovered roalso a fragment of a rampart from the first Teutonic stronghold. Brick castle – poThe later – was associated with the presence of a procurator in this place in the 14th centuryow – added the archaeologist.
Dr. hab. Wiewiora specifies that "It was assumed that the Teutonic Knights appeared here as early as 1245., but it is more reasonable to assume that the first commandery – known by name, by the way (Herman) – did not appear until the 1370s. Until 1326 the castle served as the seat of a commandery. After 1339. Prosecutor’s office was established in Unislaw, from 1384 subordinated to the Starogród commandery. It is known roAlso that in 1454 the fortress was captured and destroyed during the Thirteen Years’ War. After the conclusion of the Second Peace of Toruń, the heavily damaged castle was annexed to Poland. Destroyed again during the Polish-Swedish wars, it was demolished".
According to him, the biggest discovery is the already confirmed presence of an older "Teutonic" settlement phase: under the foundations of the brick castle, it was possible to record not only the settlement level, whichory confirms that the first Teutonic knights settling in the hills of Unislaworze in Unislaw erected a wooden and brick building, perhaps fachwerkowa. – Remains of this structure and settlement layer from this period have been found in all three pits explored so far, said Dr. hab. Wiewiora.